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Statistical analysis A general linear model GLM repeated measure analysis was used to detect within-subject differences in the psychological process categories of the texts. As additional third variables, we also collected data on several factors endogenous to US Congress, such as the composition and functioning of Congress. Language in the U. We also found that communal language garners approval when Congress is dominated by males, but communal language elicits disapproval when it was less dominated by males. Perhaps people dislike conjunctions because they prefer straightforward communication. Data-driven approach In an exploratory analysis, we entered 63 linguistic predictors of public approval, and found that eight predicted public approval in a regression analysis. We include the same control variables in our analysis to test whether the effects of language have a direct link to public approval.

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Charisma, positive emotions and mood contagion. Another possible explanation is that expressing anxiety signals threat. We also tested whether language exerted a direct effect on liwc 2007 approval, or an indirect effect via media portrayal. Hence, this correlation may, like tentativeness, arise because of an implicit preference among Americans for an educated, precise-sounding government.

For example, public approval is highest when public officials talk helping and humans, express positive emotion, and use tentative language. Conjunctions connect two separate phrases in a single, complex sentence. Future qualitative studies focusing on these factors should provide meaningful findings. Hypothesis 3 made competing predictions licw whether liwwc or communal language would be the stronger positive predictor of public approval within the U. Liwc 2007 of interest and funding The authors declare that no competing financial, liwc 2007, or personal interests or activities that could have influenced the submitted work exist.

A word-count approach to analyze linguistic patterns in the reflective writings of medical students

Author liwc 2007 JF developed the theoretical framework of the paper and guided the statistical analysis. However, Frimer et al. Regardless of gender, the participants shared a high degree of similarity in their psychological processes and expression of reflections, which might form the foundation for medical teamwork. LIWC liwc 2007 a word count approach, calculating word frequencies and converting them into percentages for 80 language categories, such as pronouns, and psychological and personal concern liwcc.


We coded and analyzed the original texts. Open in a separate window. Studies on the psychology of word usage in narrative medicine remain rare, particularly in Taiwan and Asia, and additional studies should be undertaken in the near future. The learning objectives included developing clinical observation skills, empathetic listening skills, interpersonal and communication skills, and problem-solving abilities.

Handelman LD, Lester D.

Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC2007)

National Center for Biotechnology Liwc 2007U. According to Tausczik and Pennebaker 8natural language use reveals people’s disposition regarding their processing and interpretation of information to make sense of the environment.

Between andthe US unemployment rate averaged 6. The results from our analyses were mixed, but more so supported the stereotype-disconfirming hypothesis.

According to Pennebaker and Graybeal 10language is a marker of cognitive processes. These results did not support Hypothesis 1. Female students used more words related to positive emotions and sadness than did male students.

Promoting reflection in learning: While maintaining their cognitive comprehension of health-care phenomena, medical liwc 2007 should be encouraged ,iwc enhance their empathetic understanding of the psychosocial issues in patients and illness by becoming aware of and expressing their affective experiences.

We also found that the use of second-person words predicts liwc 2007 public approval.

Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)

The importance of reflection and reflective practice for medical education and across various health professions is frequently noted in the literature 5. That is, when trying to make a good impression, coming across as warm and kind seems to be more important than coming across as competent and hard working. In a follow-up moderation analysis, we examined whether the effect of agentic and 22007 liwc 2007 on public approval liwc 2007 on the demographic make-up of Congress both in terms of political leaning and gender.


We operationalized bills passed in the House as the number of bills that received the majority of votes. Determining how students use language to construct their narratives can facilitate gaining a clearer understanding of the scope and facets of their reflections and their representational or communication liwc 2007.

To explore whether extant theory may have missed certain features of impression formation, we conducted a stepwise regression analysis with all ,iwc LIWC categories as possible predictors of public approval.

Congress, observers might value helping more than belonging, because helping would more directly serve the public’s interests.